La Loma Medical – sirviendo la communidad desde 1996

Estamos celebrando nuestro 17 años sirviendo a la comunidad local, al proporcionar asistencia médica accesible. Estamos todavía para serivirle. Llame para hacer una cita.

Heart Disease

¿Qué es la enfermedad coronaria?

La enfermedad cardíaca es el resultado de la acumulación de placa en las arterias coronarias – una condición llamada aterosclerosis – que conduce a bloqueos. Las arterias, que comienzan a cabo suave y elástica, se vuelven estrechas y rígida, lo que restringe el flujo de sangre al corazón. El corazón sufra la carencia de oxígeno y los nutrientes vitales que necesita para bombear adecuadamente.

¿Cómo se desarrolla la enfermedad coronaria?

Desde una edad temprana, la placa cargada de colesterol puede empezar a depositar en las paredes de los vasos sanguíneos. A medida que envejece, la carga de la placa se acumula, inflamando las paredes de los vasos sanguíneos y aumentar el riesgo de coágulos sanguíneos y ataques cardiacos. Las placas liberan sustancias químicas que promueven el proceso de curación, pero hacen que las paredes internas del vaso sanguíneo pegajosa. A continuación, otras sustancias, tales como las células inflamatorias, lipoproteínas, y calcio que viajan en el torrente sanguíneo iniciar pegue a la parte interior de las paredes de los vasos.

Finalmente, una arteria coronaria estrechada puede desarrollar nuevos vasos sanguíneos que van alrededor de la obstrucción para que la sangre al corazón. Sin embargo, durante los momentos de mayor esfuerzo o el estrés, los nuevos arterias pueden no ser capaces de suministrar suficiente sangre rica en oxígeno al músculo del corazón.

En algunos casos, un coágulo de sangre puede bloquear totalmente el suministro de sangre al músculo del corazón, causando un ataque al corazón. Si un vaso sanguíneo en el cerebro se bloquea, por lo general de un coágulo de sangre, un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico puede resultar. Si un vaso sanguíneo en el cerebro se rompe, muy probablemente como resultado de la hipertensión incontrolada (presión sanguínea alta), un accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico puede resultar.

¿Qué es la isquemia?

Isquemia cardíaca ocurre cuando la placa y grasos materia estrecha el interior de una arteria a un punto donde no puede suministrar suficiente sangre oxigenada para satisfacer las necesidades de su corazón. Los ataques al corazón puede ocurrir – con o sin dolor en el pecho y otros síntomas.

La isquemia se experimenta con mayor frecuencia durante:

Ejercicio o esfuerzo
Comida
Emoción o estrés
La exposición al frío

Enfermedad de la arteria coronaria puede progresar a un punto en el que la isquemia se produce incluso en reposo. Y ichemia puede ocurrir sin signos de advertencia en cualquier persona con enfermedades del corazón, aunque es más común en personas con diabetes.

Stroke

A stroke is a condition in which the brain cells suddenly die because of a lack of oxygen. This can be caused by an obstruction in the blood flow, or the rupture of an artery that feeds the brain. The patient may suddenly lose the ability to speak, there may be memory problems, or one side of the body can become paralyzed.

The two main types of stroke include ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.

    • Ischemic stroke accounts for about three-quarters of all strokes and occurs when a blood clot, or thrombus, forms that blocks blood flow to part of the brain. If a blood clot forms somewhere in the body and breaks off to become free-floating, it is called an embolus. This wandering clot may be carried through the bloodstream to the brain where it can cause ischemic stroke.

 

  • A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel on the brain’s surface ruptures and fills the space between the brain and skull with blood (subarachnoid hemorrhage) or when a defective artery in the brain bursts and fills the surrounding tissue with blood (cerebral hemorrhage).

Both types of stroke result in a lack of blood flow to the brain and a buildup of blood that puts too much pressure on the brain.

The outcome after a stroke depends on where the stroke occurs and how much of the brain is affected. Smaller strokes may result in minor problems, such as weakness in an arm or leg. Larger strokes may lead to paralysis or death. Many stroke patients are left with weakness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, incontinence, and bladder problems.

Who gets stroke?

Anyone can suffer from stroke. Although many risk factors for stroke are out of our control, several can be kept in line through proper nutrition and medical care. Risk factors for stroke include the following:

    • Over age 55

 

    • Male

 

    • African American, Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islander

 

    • A family history of stroke

 

 

 

    • Smoking cigarettes

 

 

 

    • Cardiovascular disease

 

 

    • High levels of homocysteine (an amino acid in blood)

 

 

    • Cocaine use

 

 

 

  • Depressionmiddle-aged women with clinical depression have a higher risk of stroke, researchers from the University of Queensland, Australia, reported in the journal Stroke. The authors gathered data on 10,547 Australian females aged from 47 to 52 years. They found that women with depression are more likely to have a stroke by a factor of 2.4, compared to women without depression.Even after taking into account known stroke risk factors, depressed middle-aged women were still 1.9 times more likely to have a stroke.Caroline Jackson, Ph.D., said “When treating women, doctors need to recognize the serious nature of poor mental health and what effects it can have in the long term. Current guidelines for stroke prevention tend to overlook the potential role of depression.”The researchers emphasized that although the risk was higher for women with depression, their total risk of stroke was still low.

 

What causes stroke?

Ischemic strokes are ultimately caused by a thrombus or embolus that blocks blood flow to the brain. Blood clots (thrombus clots) usually occur in areas of the arteries that have been damaged by atherosclerosis from a buildup of plaques. Embolus type blood clots are often caused by atrial fibrillation – an irregular pattern of heart beat that leads to blood clot formation and poor blood flow.

Hemorrhage strokes can be caused by uncontrolled high blood pressure, a head injury, or aneurysms. High blood pressure is the most common cause of cerebral hemorrhage, as it causes small arteries inside the brain to burst. This deprives brain cells of blood and dangerously increases pressure on the brain.

Aneurysms – abnormal blood-filled pouches that balloon out from weak spots in the wall of an artery – are the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. If an aneurysm ruptures, blood spills into the space between the surfaces of the brain and skull, and blood vessels in the brain may spasm. Aneurysms are often caused or made worse by high blood pressure.

A study found that a Single Gene Defect Can Lead To Stroke And Deadly Diseases Of The Aorta And Coronary Arteries.

A less common from of hemorrhage stroke is when an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) ruptures. AVM is an abnormal tangle of thin-walled blood vessels that is present at birth.

A study found that migraines increase stroke risk during pregnancy.

What are the symptoms of stroke?

Within a few minutes of having a stroke, brain cells begin to die and symptoms can become present. It is important to recognize symptoms, as prompt treatment is crucial to recovery. Common symptoms include:

  • Dizziness, trouble walking, loss of balance and coordination
  • Speech problems
  • Numbness, weakness, or paralysis on one side of the body
  • Blurred, blackened, or double vision
  • Sudden severe headache

Smaller strokes (or silent strokes), however, may not cause any symptoms, but can still damage brain tissue.

A possible sign that a stroke is about to occur is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA) – a temporary interruption in blood flow to part of the brain. Symptoms of TIA are similar to stroke but last for a shorter time period and do not leave noticeable permanent damage.

A study found that women are more likely to experience non-traditional stroke symptoms.

Doctor assesses an MRI brain scan

How is stroke diagnosed?

A stroke is a medical emergency, and anyone suspected of having a stroke should be taken to a hospital immediately so that tests can be run and the correct treatment can be provided as quickly as possible.

Physicians have several tools available to screen for stroke risk and diagnose an active stroke. These include:

    • Physical assessment – blood pressure tests and blood tests to see cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and amino acid levels

 

    • Ultrasound – a wand waved over the carotid arteries in the neck can provide a picture that indicates any narrowing or clotting

 

    • Arteriography – a catheter is inserted into the arteries to inject a dye that can be picked up by X-rays

 

    • Computerized tomography (CT) scan – a scanning device that creates a 3-D image that can show aneurysms, bleeding, or abnormal vessels within the brain

 

    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a magnetic field generates a 3-D view of the brain to see tissue damaged by stroke

 

    • CT and MRI with angiography – scans that are aided by a dye that is injected into the blood vessels in order to provide clearer and more detailed images

 

    • Echocardiography – an ultrasound that makes images of the heart to check for embolus

 

  • Eye-movement analyzer may diagnose stroke – researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore created a device that can help diagnose stroke by expertly analyzing eye movements. They reported their findings in the journal Stroke. The electronic device is a small, portable, video-oculography machine. It detects eye movements that most doctors find hard to notice.

 

How is stroke treated?

The primary goal in treating ischemic stroke is to restore blood flow to the brain. This will be attempted using blood clot-busting drugs such as aspirin, heparin, or tissue plasminogen activators that must be administered within three hours of the stroke. In addition, surgical procedures may be performed that can open up or widen arteries. These include carotid endarterectomy (removal of plaque and widening of the carotid artery) and angioplasty (a balloon that widens the cartoid artery and is held open with a metallic mesh tube called a stent).

A study found that cholesterol lowering drugs can prevent stroke recurrence.

Hemorrhagic stroke is treated differently than ischmic stroke. Surgical methods used to treat this stroke variant include aneurysm clipping, aneurysm embolisation, and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) removal. Aneurysm clipping consists of a small clamp placed at the base of the aneurysm that isolates it from the circulation of it’s attached artery and keeps the aneurysm from bursting or re-bleeding. Aneurysm embolisation (coiling) uses a catheter inserted into the aneurysm to deposit a tiny coil that coil fills the aneurysm, causing clotting and sealing off the aneurysm off from arteries. AVM removal is a surgical procedure to remove usually smaller AVMs or AMVs that are in more accessible portion of the brain in order to eliminate the risk of rupture.

US researchers found that patients who had experienced strokes as long as six months earlier were able to regain brain function through the help of a novel robotic device that they squeezed with their hand.

Most stroke victims will require rehabilitation after the event. A person’s condition is generally dependent on the area of the brain and the amount of tissue that was damaged. It is common for the rehabilitation process to include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and family education.

A study carried out by researchers at the University of Illinois, Chicago found that Tai Chi helped stroke victims regain balance.

A new study has found that the short window of time to treat stroke patients can be expanded.

A stroke patient was intravenously injected with his own bone marrow stem cells as part of a research trial at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

Oxford University researchers say they now know how the human brain protects itself from damage during and after a stroke. In the journal Nature Medicine, they explained how the protein hamartin helped rats’ brain cells that were being starved of oxygen and glucose survive.

How can stroke be prevented?

One way to prevent a stroke is to notice a transient ischemic attack (TIA) – or mini stroke – that provides symptoms similar to stroke. Knowing the symptoms of stroke can lead to earlier treatment and better recovery.

Much of stroke prevention is based on living a healthy lifestyle. This includes:

Written by Peter Crosta M.A.

Original article date: 17th August 2009. Article updated: 7th January, 2013
Copyright: Medical News Today

Dangers of Junk Food

In today’s age of convenience, fast food needs no introduction. Everyone from a 2-year-old toddler to a 60-year-old grandpa seems to be enjoying it every chance they get. And why not? It’s delicious, it’s filling, is really affordable, and readily available just any time of the day, being only a drive through phone call away. What more can you ask for when you are living life in the fast lane?
Well, plenty ““ fast food is all good tasting, except that it is not nutritionally balanced and, therefore, unhealthy in the long run if consumed on a regular basis.Fast food is loaded with calories from refined sugar and fats (especially, the artery-clogging saturated and hydrogenated fats, which are repeatedly reheated to high temperatures for frying purposes).
It is also very high in sodium, coming from common salt and other additives. On top of all this, fast food is deficient in dietary fiber and essential micro-nutrients like vitamins and minerals.
To make matters worse, heaps of fast food are normally guzzled down with gallons of sugar-rich colas which many fast-food restaurants serve free with food as an incentive.
To make a long story short, all this results in piling up of unused empty calories in the body, which get stored as body fat ““ till one day you look in the mirror and realize that your great figure has been replaced by this creature in the mirror.

But that’s not the end of the story, it’s just the beginning. Consuming too much fast food not only turns a handsome guy into an unsightly obese man, but as Eric Schlosserpoints out in his book it is a big health hazard too.

And being physically inactive only adds to the problem of obesity. Not many people who love fast food are ready to acknowledge that obesity is not simply an eyesore. It is a major risk factor for a large number of deadly diseases like hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, and even many types of cancers.

Recent scientific studies have shown that high-calorie foods rich in fats, refined sugar and salt could reconfigure the hormones in the body in such a way that they make you crave for such foods and always leave you asking for more.

In other words, fast food is kind of addictive; you get hooked on to it and continue consuming it in an uncontrolled way in spite of knowing that it is unhealthy. The more you consume, the more difficult it is for you to opt for healthy foods.

The situation is worse in case of children who from a very young age get hooked on fast food. Making them change their food habits from fatty and sweet foods and develop a taste for health-promoting fruits and vegetables is a task easier said than done. Such children would grow up to be obese adults who have never felt the advantages of being a healthy weight.

To sum up, consuming fast food on a regular basis leads to many health hazards. But bringing about changes in eating habits is not easy.

To start with, a simple change that one could make is to successively reduce the frequency of eating fast food and eat more frequently home-cooked food, with plenty of fresh foods and vegetables.

If your a female there is a great free suport group called Diet Bug. They are there to encourage and help you.

Slowly your taste will change and your body will respond with new found energy.That doesn’t mean you can never have fast food again. All it means is that you cut the fast food way back. I still occasionally(once a month)will have my #1 at McDonalds. Big Mac Rules!

Diabetes

Early detection and treatment of diabetes can decrease the risk of developing the complications of diabetes. The following symptoms of diabetes are typical. However, some people with type 2 diabetes have symptoms so mild that they go unnoticed.

Common symptoms of diabetes:

  • Urinating often
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Feeling very hungry – even though you are eating
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal
  • Weight loss – even though you are eating more (type 1)
  • Tingling, pain, or numbness in the hands/feet (type 2)

Learn about how diabetes is diagnosed or take our Risk Test to find out if you are at increased risk for having type 2 diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes

Women with gestational diabetes often have no symptoms, which is why it’s important for at-risk women to be tested at the proper time during pregnancy.

Learn more about gestational diabetes.

Symptoms of Diabetes Complications

Have you already been diagnosed with diabetes but are concerned about symptoms that may be the result of complications related to diabetes?

Visit the Complications section.

You may also be interested in our book, Uncomplicated Guide To Diabetes’ Complications, 3rd Edition

Learn More

Do you have questions or concerns about diabetes symptoms? Want to connect with others? Visit the American Diabetes Association Community to find support now!
If you’ve recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, enroll in the FREE Living With Type 2 Diabetes program to get more information and support